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Alien: A person who is not a citizen of the country in which he or she lives.

Corner/Streets: Slang terms which refer to sidewalks, unimproved lots, or some other publicly visible areas (public or private property) where day laborers have traditionally or spontaneously waited to be hired for jobs. Often, these corners are near home improvement, building supply, truck rental, or paint stores.

Day laborer: Someone who waits at a street corner, a designated hiring center, an empty lot or parking lot of a home improvement store (e.g., Home Depot), to sell their labor for the day, hour, or for a particular job. In Spanish, day laborers are termed: jornaleros, esquineros, trabajadores, and obreros.

Hiring Site: Refers to any place where day laborers gather to await employers to hire them.

Hate Crime: A crime that was motivated in whole or in part by a bias against the victim's perceived race, religion, ethnicity [or national origin], sexual orientation, or disability.

Hiring Center: Refers to a formal place with an on-site staff that has been specifically developed to facilitate the process of hiring day laborers.

Immigrant: A foreign-born individual, who has been admitted to reside permanently in the United States as a Lawful Permanent Resident.

Non-Immigrant: Individual who is permitted to enter the U.S. for a limited time period. e.g. Students, tourists, temporary workers, business executives, diplomats, artists and entertainers, and reporters.

Undocumented Immigrant: A person who is present in the United States without the permission of the U.S. government. Undocumented immigrants enter the U.S. either illegally, without being inspected by an immigration officer, or by using false documents, or legally, with a temporary visa, and then remain in the U.S. beyond the expiration date of the visa. Undocumented immigrants are sometimes referred as illegal immigrants.

Visa: Department of State document authorizing a non-U.S. citizen to enter and remain in the United States for a specified period of time and for certain purposes.

These definitions and clarifications are excerpted in part from the study: "Day Labor Hiring Sites: Constructive Approaches to Community Conflict." Robin Toma and Jill Esbenshade, Los Angeles County Human Relations Commission, 2001 and the FBI website.

Hispanic Immigration

General Information &Amp; Statistics

The Brookings Institution
This think tank has recently produced several reports on trends in immigration, particularly Latino immigration patterns. The most relevant reports include Latino Growth in Metropolitan America and The Rise of New Immigrant Gateways. Also, see what a panel of immigration experts had to say about "Farmingville" after a screening at the Brookings Institution in this interview transcript.

Pew Hispanic Center
The Pew Hispanic Center's mission is to improve understanding of the diverse Hispanic population in the United States and to chronicle Latinos' growing impact on the nation. The Center strives to inform debate on critical issues through dissemination of its research to policymakers, business leaders, academic institutions and the media. Access their reports by clicking on one of the following categories: immigration, economics/remittances and labor.

The Center for Immigration Studies
An independent, non-partisan, non-profit research organization founded in 1985. It is the nation's only think tank devoted exclusively to research and policy analysis of the economic, social, demographic, fiscal, and other impacts of immigration on the United States.

American Immigration Council
AIC was established in 1987 as a tax-exempt, not-for-profit educational, charitable organization. The Council is dedicated to increasing public understanding of immigration law and policy and the value of immigration to American society; to promoting public service and excellence in the practice of immigration law; and to advancing fundamental fairness and due process under the law for immigrants.

Migration Policy Institute
An independent, non-partisan, non-profit think-tank in Washington, D.C. dedicated to the study of the movement of people worldwide. MPI provides analysis, development, and evaluation of migration and refugee policies at the local, national, and international levels.

Transcripts & Articles

Washington Post Live Transcript: Sesno Reports: Press One for English
Audrey Singer, visiting fellow at the Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, took questions from viewers of the PBS public affairs show "Sesno Reports" on the trends and implication of immigration in the Washington, D.C. region. Washington, D.C. is one of the top 18 hypergrowth areas for immigrant growth during the last 20 years. Find out more about hypergrowth destinations across America. (June 4, 2004)

National Geographic Magazine: Geographica: Latinos Rise Nationwide
Delve deeper into hot topics like America's demographics with this resource-laden feature. Learn more about America's new majority minority.

CNNfyi: Hispanic Population Booms in the U.S.
This article explains the results of the 2000 U.S. Census and includes links to interactives, like one interactive quiz produced by the U.S. Census team, that help you understand the Hispanic population growth during the 1990s. (March 13, 2001)

The Intelligence Project: Blood on the Border
The Southern Poverty Law Center's Intelligence Project is dedicated to monitoring hate groups and extremist activity in the U.S. This 2003 article summarizes the growing trend of violence against immigrants and provides a breakdown of various national groups involved in anti-immigration activism. Two of the groups represented in "Farmingville" -- American Patrol and California Citizens for Immigration Reform -- are defined as hate groups by the Intelligence Project.

The Federation for American Immigration Reform
In "Farmingville," the Sachem Quality of Life citizens' group contacts FAIR to help them in their efforts to stop illegal immigrants from working in their town. FAIR is a national, non-profit, public interest membership organization of concerned citizens united by their belief in the need for immigration reform. Founded in 1979, FAIR believes that the U.S. can and must have an immigration policy that is non-discriminatory and designed to serve the environmental, economic, and social needs of our country.

Enlaces América [en Español]
This non-profit group is committed to working with Latino immigrants in the U.S. to support them in developing the knowledge and capacity required to be effective advocates in shaping the multiple public policy decisions that impact their communities' lives here and in their countries of origin. They have an excellent related links section on their website.

Labor Council for Latin American Advancement
This AFL-CIO advocacy group is dedicated to organizing and empowering Latino workers and fighting for immigrant's rights. Their website contains information on local chapters, national convention, and current news.

National Council of La Raza
NCLR is the largest constituency-based national Hispanic organization, serving all Hispanic nationality groups in all regions of the U.S.

National Immigration Forum
The Forum seeks to embrace and uphold America's tradition as a nation of immigrants. The Forum advocates and builds public support for public policies that welcome immigrants and refugees and that are fair and supportive to newcomers in our country.

Nativism vs. Assimilation

Foreign Policy magazine: The Hispanic Challenge
In this controversial excerpt from his new book Who We Are, Harvard historian Samuel P. Huntington argues that the persistent inflow of Hispanic immigrants threatens to divide the United States into two peoples, two cultures, and two languages. He argues that unlike past immigrant groups, Mexicans and other Latinos have not assimilated into mainstream U.S. culture, forming instead their own political and linguistic enclaves -- from Los Angeles to Miami -- and rejecting the Anglo-Protestant values that built the American dream. (Registration required.) (March/April 2004)

Foreign Policy magazine: Commentary on Huntington's article.
Samuel Huntington's controversial essay, "The Hispanic Challenge," has produced unprecedented international media coverage and sparked a global debate on the impact of Latino immigrants in the United States. Reactions from academics, activists, and concerned readers offer new insights on this crucial topic -- as does Huntington's response to his critics. (registration required)

The Economist magazine: A question of identity
In 1993 Samuel Huntington caused consternation by arguing that globalization would produce not harmonious growth, but a clash of civilizations. He was particularly criticized for talking about Islam's "bloody borders." Now the Harvard professor has decided to gore another sacred cow -- the idea that mass Latino immigration is an unqualified blessing for America. (March 4, 2004)

TIME magazine: Viewpoint: New Patriots in Our Midst
A forthcoming book says Mexican Americans won't assimilate. Michael Elliott thinks it's wrong. (April 5, 2004)

Newsweek magazine (International Edition): Two Americas?
A massive wave of Hispanic immigration is raising questions about identity and integration. (March 21, 2004)

Business Week magazine: Hispanic Nation
Hispanics are an immigrant group like no other. Their huge numbers are challenging old assumptions about assimilation. Is America ready? (March 15, 2004)

Also on PBS and NPR

POV Websites

The Sixth Section
Learn more about the dynamic form of cross-border organizing through the story of "Grupo Unión," a small band of Mexican immigrants in upstate New York devoted to raising money to rebuild the town they left behind. The website has resource links to Mexican and Latin American organizations working in the U.S. and links to immigration policy and legal help organizations. (September 2003)

POV's Borders
Our web-only documentary series asks about the borders in our lives, both literal and metaphysical. The first episode of POV's Borders deals with stories surrounding the theme of migration. (2002)

Many Americans assume that the field workers who carry out the backbreaking job of harvesting our fruits and vegetables are seasonal or recent immigrants to the U.S. But many migrant workers are, in fact, long-time citizens who work as family units in the fields. (August 2002)

La Boda
Meet these two young people from the U.S.-Mexican border region whose lives are framed by the challenges of migrant life. In this absorbing film, the wedding becomes a touching evocation of migrant life, girlhood and the enduring strength of family tradition.A Co-presentation with Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB). (July 2001) Websites

The New Americans
Follow a diverse group of immigrants and refugees as they leave their home and families behind and learn what it means to be new Americans in the 21st century. The website offers an excellent links section with resources for immigrants (April 2004)

Beyond the Border
Imagine giving up everything-your family, your country, your friends, your language...Leaving everything behind for dreams of a better life. Más Allá de la Frontera traces the painful transition made by four sons in the Ayala family who leave their close-knit family in Mexico to seek "la vida buena" (the good life) in Kentucky. Struggling to fit in, they find a different version of the American dream. (January 2002)

Online NewsHour: Immigration Reform
The guest worker program President Bush recently proposed has sparked heated debate in California. Some labor groups in the state oppose the plan, but most businesses support it. (February 2004)

Online NewsHour: A Day's Work
Ted Robbins of KUAT Tucson reports on the expanding day labor industry and efforts to improve conditions for the temporary workforce. (August 18, 2003)

NPR Stories

Tavis Smiley Show: Will Hispanic Population Explosion Divide the United States?
In an essay in Foreign Policy magazine, renowned academic Samuel P. Huntington argues that Hispanic immigration threatens to divide the United States "into two peoples, two cultures, and two languages." Some immigration-reform groups are taking heart from this theory. But Latino organizations are both furious and baffled over this assertion. We hear from Ira Mehlman of the Federation for American Immigration Reform, Lisa Navarrete, vice president of La Raza, and Clarence Lusane of the School of International Service at American University. (March 22, 2004)

Morning Edition: Austin Targets Abuses by Day-Labor Employers
Most U.S. cities with large day-laborer populations do not offer them many protections. But Austin, Texas, is one city that is chasing after employers who don't pay their mostly illegal immigrant workers. NPR's John Burnett reports. (Nov. 10, 2003)

Tavis Smiley Show: Hate Crimes, the Law and Punishment: Part I | Part II
This month, the U.S. Senate is scheduled to begin debating the Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act of 2003. The bill would authorize federal government assistance for local communities to better prosecute hate crimes. In the first of a two-part series, correspondent Phillip Martin examines hate crimes, laws and punishment. In part two, Martin examines how effectively hate crimes are being reported in the United States, and how the laws against these crimes are enforced. (Sept. 9 & 10, 2003)

All Things Considered: Use of Day Laborers Common in Big U.S. Cities
NPR's Jim Zarroli reports that day-labor markets have become commonplace in America's big cities. Immigrant laborers looking for a job for the day, or maybe for the week, begin arriving early in the morning at a particular street corner. Often they congregate in the same spot day after day, year after year. These men make up an important underground work force, especially in the construction and building trades. A new study says many prefer day work to steady employment because day jobs pay better. (May 5, 2003)